December 3, 2017

Portuguese translation of RJ Cox’s Personal Archives: A New Archival Calling

Our 2009 publication, Personal Archives: A New Archival Calling, by Richard J. Cox, has been translated into Portuguese and published by Editora UFMG:

Arquivos Pessoais: Um Novo Campo Profissional – Leituras, reflexões e reconsiderações

This is our second book translated into Portuguese, the first being John Miedema’s book, Slow Reading.

September 27, 2017

Call for Assistance — Interference Archive

Message from Jen Hoyer of the Interference Archive in NYC:

Hi all,

I thought some on this list might be interested in recent updates from Interference Archive — a project near and dear to my heart.

Located in Brooklyn, NY, since 2011 Interference Archive (http://interferencearchive.org/) has collected and provided open stacks access to material produced by social movements around the globe — posters, stickers, buttons, zines, periodicals, newspapers, t-shirts, and more. Run 100% by volunteers, Interference puts on over 80 free public events each year, in addition to regular open hours, exhibitions, and educational visits for local schools.

In the summer of 2017, the archive was evicted from its original home after the sale of its building. We’ve found an amazing new space in an even better location and we’ve signed a long-term lease that will let us really settle into our new home, but rent has increased since our 2011 lease was signed, and the costs of moving and building out a new space are really high.

Please help! We’ve launched a fundraising campaign to support the expenses of our move and buildout, and we’d be so grateful if you have a few dollars to give: http://bit.ly/2xVSJqq

There are other ways you can help as well! I know that all of you are connected with other networks of folks who care deeply about community archives and social movements. We’d love if you could share our news and our fundraising drive with them, or connect us (info@interferencearchive.org) with anyone you think may be able to lend us a hand. We have handy links to this on Facebook and Twitter as well.

Thank you so much!

Jen Hoyer

December 22, 2015

Archival Research and Education: Selected Papers from the 2014 AERI Conference

Archival Research and Education
Selected Papers from the 2014 AERI Conference

Editors: Richard J. Cox, Alison Langmead, and Eleanor Mattern
Price: $45.00
Published: December 2015
ISBN: 978-1-63400-020-8
436 pages
Printed on acid-free paper

Available from Amazon.com

This book is number seven in the Series on Archives, Archivists, and Society, Richard J. Cox, editor.

The sixth annual Archival Education and Research Institute (AERI), hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences in July 2014, brought together doctoral students and faculty engaged in Archival Studies from around the world, although principally from the United States. Supported by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, these institutes are designed to strengthen education and research, as well as support academic cohort building and mentoring in the archival community.

This publication features fifteen essays by both emerging and established archival scholars and faculty from four continents. Subjects include: dictatorship archives in Brazil, affect and agency in the archives of the countries of the former Yugoslavia, archival images in recent movies, archival systems interoperability research, cross institutional usages of EAD 2002 , Ernst Posner and archival scholarship in Washington, D.C., technical infrastructures and digital heritage preservation, the challenges of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage, enabling Big Data curation in a non-archival organization, personal archiving of Web pornography, the history and future of archival education in the United States, innovative archival teaching methods in China, rights in records as a platform for participatory archiving, and archival readings of Derrida’s Archive Fever. These contributions reflect the range of new archival research, the continuing maturation of archival education, and the growing international collaboration among archival scholars and faculty.

The volume is offered in memory of Terry Cook (1947-2014), the plenary speaker at the first AERI conference in 2009.

The contents of the volume are as follows:

In Memory of Terry Cook Anne Gilliland

Introduction Richard J. Cox, Alison Langmead, and Eleanor Mattern

International Perspectives, Human Rights, and Archives

Lucian Heymann, “Dictatorship Memories and Archives in Brazil: Reflections on Politics and Projects.”

Anne Gilliland, “Studying Affect and its Relationship to the Agency of Archivists in the Countries of the Former Yugoslavia.”

Anne Gilliland and Sue McKemmish, “Rights in Records as a Platform for Participative Archiving.”

Archival Images

Lindsay Mattock and Eleanor Mattern, “Looking at Archives in Cinema: Recent Representations of Records in Motion Pictures.”

Archival Systems and Standards

Gregory Rolan, “Archival Systems Interoperability: Research Themes and Opportunities.”

Sarah Buchanan, “Cross Institutional Usage of EAD 2002 as an Archival Description Standard.”

Archival History

Jane Zhang, “Archival Scholarship in the Nation’s Capital: Ernst Posner.”

Digital Heritage and Archives

Patricia Galloway, “Technical Infrastructures and Digital Heritage Preservation.”

Tonia Sutherland, “A Culture of Collaboration: Bridging the Gap Between Archive and Repertoire.”

Lorraine Richards, Adam Townes, and Yuan Yuan Feng, “Curation through the Back Door: Enabling Big Data Curation Capabilities in a Non-Archival Organization.”

Personal Archiving

Sarah Ramdeen and Alex Poole, “’Leaving the mouse on the left is the new leaving the tape in the VCR’: Personal Archiving, Personal Information, and the ‘Pariah Industry’ of Web Pornography”

Archival Education and Knowledge

Alison Langmead, “The History of Archival Education in America: What’s Next?”

Huang Xiaoyu, “The Innovation of Archival Teaching Method: Introducing Archival News into the Classroom.”

James M. O’Toole, “Understanding Understanding: What Do Archivists Need to Know, Then and Now?”

Robert Riter, “Derridean Influences: Archival Readings of Archive Fever.”

Richard J. Cox, Alison Langmead, and Eleanor Mattern are faculty in the Archival and Information Studies program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences.

July 17, 2015

Project ARCC

From the website:

Project ARCC is a task force of archivists striving to motivate the archival profession to affect climate change. We seek to achieve a four-fold mission:

– Protect archival collections from the impact of climate change
– Reduce our professional carbon and ecological footprint
– Elevate climate change related archival collections to improve public awareness and understanding of climate change
– Preserve this epochal moment in history for future research and understanding

Sounds good to me!!!

http://projectarcc.org/

February 6, 2015

Call for Papers: Affect and the Archive

Special Issue of Archival Science

Call for Papers: Affect and the Archive

Guest editors: Anne J. Gilliland (Gilliland@gseis.ucla.edu) and Marika Cifor (mcifor@ucla.edu), UCLA Department of Information Studies.

Building upon the momentum generated by the Symposium on Affect and the Archive held at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) in November 2014 and the enthusiastic critical reception of the work it profiled, this special issue of Archival Science on Affect and Archive will further explore and expose scholarly and professional understandings of and encounters with affect in the archive as well as in broader record- and memory-keeping contexts. Responding to the affective turn in scholarship and calls for scholarship regarding the archive and archival practice to engage more directly with affective aspects such as intimacy, sexuality, love, trauma, hope, fear and credulity, this special issue will have three main objectives:

to expose a range of conceptualizations, spaces and approaches relevant to this topic, for example, those relating to gender and sexuality or to conflict and other forms of violence, or in healthcare, the arts and humanities;

to generate dialogue between disciplinary (e.g., literature, art, gender studies, anthropology) and the professional archival and curatorial fields relating to affect and the archive/archives;

and,mto identify potential contributions that might be made by archival studies and records theory to the field of affect studies or vice versa.

The Affect and the Archive Symposium included innovative research on the intersections of affect and the archive relating particularly to human rights, migration and diaspora, sexuality, labor, bodies and embodiment, and visual art. However, in addition to such themes, there are many other aspects of affect that might also be addressed. In order for this special issue to be as representative as possible of state-of-the-art research we are soliciting relevant work being undertaken in fields as diverse as anthropology, sociology, literature, art, cultural studies, gender studies and post-colonial studies, as well as archival studies. Papers addressing affective aspects associated with Indigeneity, place and displacement, performance, sports and leisure, literature, belief and faith, (post)colonialism, and health and wellbeing are especially encouraged. If you have any questions about whether a paper would be a good fit for this issue, please email the editors: Gilliland@gseis.ucla.edu and mcifor@ucla.edu.

Archival Science is an independent, international, peer-reviewed journal on archival science, covering all aspects of theory, methodology and practice, with appropriate attention to the non-anglophone world.

Paper submission due date: April 30, 2015. Papers are to be submitted for review online. Please select Article Type: SI: Affect. Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. (Full instructions for authors)

December 2, 2014

CFP: Radical Archives (Archive Journal)

Archive Journal
Special issue: Radical Archives
Deadline: April 15, 2015

“Radical archives” and “radical archiving” are concepts that continue to gain currency among archivists, artists and cultural theorists alike, but to date, discussions of “radical archives” and “radical archiving” often appear to rest on an assumed rather than articulated understanding of what these concepts mean. For this special issue of Archive Journal (scheduled for Fall 2015), we seek essays (3000 to 5000 words), reviews, and/or interviews (text, image, audio and video formats welcome) that address one or more of the following questions with the aim of bringing greater clarity to the “radical” in discussions of archives and archiving:

– What do we mean when we talk about “radical archives” and “radical archiving”? Does the “radical” point to a specific politic, to types of content, or to a set of practices that challenge archival standards?

– How might we define “radical content” and “radical practice” in relation to archives?

– Are radical practices necessarily opposed to archival standards?

– To what extent are archival standards responsive to change? Why do cultural theorists’ accounts of archives so often rest on the assumption that archives are by definition resistant to change? Is there an investment in understanding archives as sites of inflexibility and stagnation?

– Is radical content (e.g., the archives of activist collectives, social movements, or avant-garde artists) best served by practices that eschew archival standards? What are the short and long-term consequences of such decisions?

– How might community-based archives support the work of institutional collections and vice-versa? Furthermore, what questions, anxieties and/or possibilities are opened up when we begin to think about preservation across these spaces?

– What, in fact, do we mean by “archives”? For many outside of libraries and institutional archives, the term has come simply to mean a collection of “curated” materials. How do we talk about “radical archives” without a shared understanding of what an archive is, or of what it signifies for different types of practitioners and theorists?

– How might the work of cultural theorists with investments in radical, activist and queer archives benefit from a deeper engagement with the practices, discourses and perspectives of working archivists, and vice versa?

Please send submissions to guest editors Lisa Darms (lisadee@nyu.edu) and Kate Eichorn (eichhorc@newschool.edu) by April 15, 2015. Proposals should include a brief (200-word) professional biography. An open access, peer-reviewed journal, Archive Journal seeks content that speaks to its diverse audience that includes librarians, scholars, archivists, technologists, and students.

November 1, 2014

Second Annual Library Juice Paper Contest Winner

Library Juice Press is happy to announce the winner of the Second Annual Library Juice Paper Contest. Michelle Caswell’s paper, titled, “Inventing New Archival Imaginaries: Theoretical Foundations for Identity-Based Community Archives,” was judged by the award jury to be the best paper out of 25 submitted in this year’s contest, in a blind process in which identifying information was removed from the papers submitted. Jury member Ryan Shaw wrote of Caswell’s paper,

“In her chapter Caswell moves fluidly between reporting on her experiences co-founding an identity-based community archive, explaining and showing how to use concepts from postcolonialist theory, and making a case for an archiving as activism. She does each equally well, and despite its multiple purposes the chapter is a single cohesive piece. It was also a pleasure to read: Caswell has a journalist’s flair for communicating complex ideas clearly and telling a story.”

Cawell’s paper was published as a chapter in Identity Palimpsests: Archiving Ethnicity in the United States and Canada, Litwin Books, 2014. Michelle Caswell is an Assistant Professor of Archival Studies in the Department of Information Studies at UCLA.

The Library Juice Paper Contest winner receives an award of $1000. The intention of this contest is to encourage and reward good work in the field of library and information studies, humanistically understood, through a monetary award and public recognition. Papers submitted may be unpublished, pending publication, or published in the year of the award. Any type of paper may be entered as long as it is not a report of an empirical study. Examples of accepted forms would be literature review essays, analytical essays, historical papers, and personal essays. The work may include some informal primary research, but may not essentially be the report of an empirical study.

The critera for judgment are:

– Clarity of writing
– Originality of thought
– Sincerity of effort at reaching something true
– Soundness of argumentation (where applicable)
– Relevance to our time and situation

The jury for this year’s award consisted of Toni Samek, Professor, School of Library & Information Studies, University of Alberta; Ryan Shaw, an Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina School of Information and Library Science and Emily Knox, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Entries in next year’s award are due September 1st, 2015.

Library Juice Press is an imprint of Litwin Books, LLC specializing in theoretical and practical issues in librarianship from a critical perspective, for an audience of professional librarians and students of library science.

##

Library Juice Press
P.O. Box 188784
Sacramento, CA 95818
Tel. 218-260-6115
inquiries@libraryjuicepress.com
http://libraryjuicepress.com/

October 21, 2014

LibrarianShipwreck on the Emma Goldman papers

Recommended reading: LibrarianShipwreck on the fate of the Emma Goldman Papers

April 11, 2014

Radical Archives and Index of the Disappeared

Chitra Ganesh and Mariam Ghani are artists, archivists, and activists. Both have been involved in immigration rights activism, especially after 9/11, and they created the shifting exhibition Index of the Disappeared, now in its 10th year, to address the insidious surveillance, false narratives, and criminalization of dissent perpetrated by the U.S. government.

I saw the “Secrets Told” version of the archive at New York University last month. During a tour of the exhibit, Ghani spoke about her and Ganesh’s idea of “exploding the archive” and putting the fragments elsewhere. The information they’ve collected is all in the public domain, but what their project does is make the connections of disparate data more visible.

(If you want to read more, a previous incarnation of Ganesh and Ghani’s work was the subject of the essay Warming up Records: Archives, Memory, Power and Index of the Disappeared. As Alice Royer puts it, “Their project makes visible that which has been rendered invisible, re-politicizes that which has been deemed natural, and names the government as the perpetrator.” [Emphasis in original.])

The Q&A at the “Secrets Told” tour brought up the question of the line between the activist and the archivist, which is something Ganesh and Ghani want us all to grapple with. Today is the start of the two-day Radical Archives conference at NYU. The hashtag is #radarcs—follow along!

redactions

“Reasonable Articulable Suspicion,” redactions, and Benjamin Franklin.

binder

One of the many binders of articles, government documents, court cases, and other materials collected and organized for researchers’ use.

files

Files arranged by topic, with connections drawn between them.

file

The pivotal 1979 Smith v. Maryland decision, which led to the legalization of personal metadata collected via (land) phone calls.

April 4, 2014

New book: Identity Palimpsests: Archiving Ethnicity in the U.S. and Canada

Identity Palimpsests: Archiving Ethnicity in the U.S. and Canada

Editors: Dominique Daniel and Amalia Levi
Price: $45.00
Published: April 2014
ISBN: 978-1-936117-85-7
Printed on acid-free paper

This book is a part of the Litwin Books Series on Archives, Archivists, and Society, Richard J. Cox, editor.

Identity Palimpsests assesses the ways ethnic identities and other forms of belonging are affected by, and also affect, current practices in ethnic archiving. The book begins with an overview of the evolution of the way ethnic organizations and communities have collected, preserved and provided access to their heritage. It then goes on to examine contemporary practices and theories in the context of a cultural heritage sector that is today defined by the digital medium and the Web. Institutions involved in ethnic archiving include libraries, archives and museums that document the history of immigration and ethnicity in the United States and Canada.

Archives shape the way we understand the past and see the future. This has repercussions for the construction, writing, and representation of minority and diaspora histories in the North American context. Considering the variety and diversity of ethnic populations in North America, these repercussions reach beyond the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans as well. In an age of citizen-archivists, and citizen-historians, the changing ways we understand authority in archival settings signal a paradigm shift. Archivists and historians are called to reexamine and redefine their roles and professions in this process.

The book contains both theoretical and practical contributions by practitioners in the field and scholars in history and archival science. Practical contributions not only focus on particular institutions, but also provide comparative studies among cultural heritage institutions. They also debate about what is “ethnic archiving” today and who should be entrusted with the curation of ethnic collections in heritage institutions. The book’s chapters cover heritage institutions run by minorities themselves, and also others run through mainstream or official channels (government, academic, etc.).

At the theoretical level, the chapters discuss the impact of ethnic studies and evolving theories of ethnicity on archiving practices; the effect of ethnic archiving on historical research; and the emergence of memory studies as a lens for understanding identity. Both contemporary and historical perspectives are included.

Archival science has long challenged the image of the archivist as a neutral guardian of the historical record and recognized her role as an active shaper of archives, but historians have yet to discuss implications for historical research. This book is designed to bring new theoretical insight into the impact of this challenge on ethnic archiving, to suggest ways historians are affected, and to begin to study implications for the archivist? practice. The book also innovates by exploring the impact that archivists have on the very ethnic identities they are trying to preserve. The book’s intended audience is cultural heritage professionals; iSchools and Library Science schools’ students and faculty; and historians. While the book deals with heritage institutions in the U.S. and Canada, it appeals to an international audience.

May 28, 2013

New Book: Import of the Archive

Import of the Archive: U.S. Colonial Rule of the Philippines and the Making of American Archival History

Author: Cheryl Beredo
Price: $25.00
Published: June 2013
ISBN: 978-1-936117-72-7
Printed on acid-free paper
Published by Litwin Books

This book a part of the Series on Archives, Archivists, and Society, Richard J. Cox, editor.

Import of the Archive examines the role of archives in the United States’ colonization of the Philippines between 1898 and 1916. During this period the archives played a critical part in the United States’ entrenchment of a colonial state, exhibiting the flexibility and authority to enable arguments of the former colonial power’s incompetence and the native population’s incapacity.

Based on extensive research of and in archives in the Philippines and the United States, this book urges readers to consider archival history within the context of America’s imperial history. This book defines the archives broadly, as the accumulation material about a time proclaimed as “historic,” as well as the records of the Bureau of Insular Affairs and the United States’ Philippine Government, and the archives ceded by Spain per the treaty that ended the Spanish-American War.

Taking an historical approach to understanding the political function that archives played in this particular context, this book is intended for classroom use in archival studies curricula. A slim volume, it could be assigned with complementary books or articles on archives in other colonial contexts, critical analyses of libraries and archives, or any number of topics. It will also be of general interest to scholars of archival history and United States-Philippine relations.

May 19, 2013

The Mexican Suitcase

Recommended to anyone interested in archives and the cultural record: the documentary now streaming on Netflix called The Mexican Suitcase. It’s about the recovery of a cache of photographic negatives made by important photographers who went to fight the fascists with their cameras during the Spanish Civil War. (It’s called The Mexican Suitcase because it ended up hidden in Mexico for 70 years before it was finally discovered.) Robert Capa is the most historically significant of the three. The pictures ended up at the International Center of Photography in NYC. The documentary interviews people who knew the photographers, archivists, survivors of the war, descendents of refugees, and others. It balances attention to the history itself, the significance for photographic history, and a sense of how the lives of people now are connected to these photographs in various ways…

October 17, 2012

Interview with Christine D’Arpa

I have interviewed Chris D’Arpa for the News and Comment blog over at Library Juice Academy. Chris is in the instructor for a course being offered in November: “So Now I Am an Archivist, Too?! Introduction to Archives Administration and Management. Chris gave an informative interview that will provide some background about her to anyone who might be interested in taking the class.

June 29, 2012

CfP: Identity Palimpsests: Ethnic Archiving in the U.S. and Canada

Call for Papers: Identity Palimpsests: Ethnic Archiving in the U.S. and Canada

Forthcoming volume in the series Archives, Archivists, and Society.

Series editor: Richard J. Cox. Publisher: Litwin Books, LLC, Los Angeles, CA Volume editors: Dr. Dominique Daniel, Assistant Professor, Humanities Librarian for History and Modern Languages, Kresge Library, Oakland University (daniel [at] oakland.edu) and Amalia S. Levi, Ph.D. student (2014), iSchool, University of Maryland (amaliasl [at] umd.edu).

Deadline for submission of abstracts: August 30, 2012

Format: Contributions should be approximately 7,000 words (for theoretical contributions), and approximately 3,500 words (for practical contributions), prepared in Word, and should follow the Chicago Manual of Style, notes and bibliography documentation system.

Description

Litwin Books invites original papers for a new volume in its Archives, Archivists, and Society series. The book?s main objective is to assess the ways ethnic identities and other forms of belonging are affected by, and also affect, current practices in ethnic archiving. The book will both provide a historical overview of the ways ethnic organizations and communities have collected, preserved and provided access to their heritage; and examine contemporary practices and theories in the context of a cultural heritage sector that is today defined by the digital medium and the Web. For the purpose of this book institutions involved in ethnic archiving may include libraries, archives, historical societies and museums that document the history of immigration and ethnicity in the United States and Canada. The book will contain both theoretical and practical contributions by practitioners in the field and scholars in history and archival science.

Archives shape the way we understand the past and we see the future. This has repercussions for the construction, writing, and representation of minority and diaspora histories in the North American context. Considering the variety and diversity of ethnic populations in North America, these repercussions reach beyond the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans as well. In an age of citizen-archivists, and citizen-historians, the changing ways we understand authority in archival settings signal a paradigm shift. Archivists and historians are called to reexamine and redefine their roles and professions in this process, while ethnic minorities have explored new, culturally specific and technology-rich ways to preserve, promote and display their heritage.

Archival science has long challenged the image of the archivist as a neutral guardian of the historical record and recognized her role as an active shaper of archives, but historians have yet to discuss implications for historical research. We invite contributions that bring new theoretical insight into the impact of the “archival turn” on ethnic archiving, that suggest ways historical research may be affected, and that begin to outline implications for the archivists? practice. Contributions that explore the impact that archivists have on the very ethnic identities they are trying to preserve are particularly welcome.

Theoretical contributions

At the theoretical level, the contributions can adopt a contemporary or historical perspective. Topics can include, but are not limited to:

– the impact of ethnic studies and evolving theories of ethnicity on archiving practices
– new developments in archival theory that have or could have implications for ethnic
archiving
– the effects of ethnic archiving on historical research, and ? the emergence of memory and postcolonial studies as lenses for understanding identity formation, and diversity in a post-9/11 world.

Practical contributions

For practical contributions, essays that do not only focus on particular institutions, but also provide comparative studies among cultural heritage institutions will be preferred. Practical contributions could deal with heritage institutions run by minorities themselves, and also others run through mainstream or official channels (government, academic, etc.). Topics include, but are not limited to:

– what is „ethnic archiving? today and who should be entrusted with the curation of ethnic collections in heritage institutions
– the purposes of archiving for ethnic minorities
– methods of ethnic archiving, and
– web and digital technologies that have been used in innovative ways for ethnic archiving.

Timeline

Please send 500-word abstracts and a brief CV with relevant publications by August 30. Notification of acceptance will be sent by September 30, 2012. Accepted authors should submit articles for review by January 30, 2013. Deadline for submission of final articles with revisions is March 30, 2013.

For more information or questions, please contact Dominique Daniel (daniel [at] oakland.edu) or Amalia S. Levi (amaliasl [at] umd.edu).

June 19, 2012

Make Your Own History: Documenting Feminist and Queer Activism in the 21st Century

Make Your Own History: Documenting Feminist and Queer Activism in the 21st Century

Editors: Lyz Bly and Kelly Wooten
Price: $30.00
Published: June 2012
ISBN: 978-1-936117-13-0
Printed on acid-free paper

Number 2 in the Litwin Books Series on Gender and Sexuality in Information Studies, Emily Drabinski, series editor.

Make Your Own History: Documenting Feminist and Queer Activism in the 21st Century addresses the practical and theoretical challenges and advantages of researching, documenting, and archiving recent and contemporary activists in the feminist and queer movements. In the last few decades, the place and practice of activism has shifted from a physical “headquarters” where activists convene to plan and strategize, to the reality where planning happens at various desks and kitchen tables across the country (or world) and activists then convene at one site for an action (the prime example of this being the WTO protest in Seattle in 1999). So much of the work is taking place in the digital environment and/or within smaller do-it-yourself (DIY) and anarchist subcultures where ideas are often shared via zines and other ephemeral materials. The challenge of the archivist and the scholar, whose work is traditionally paper-based, is to keep up with the changing modes of communication of these individuals and organizations and to make sure these activists’ work is not left out of the historical record.

Activists, archivists, librarians, and scholars address the following issues and topics: the practical material challenges of documenting and archiving contemporary activism; theoretical perspectives and conversations; online communities and communications; “third wave” feminism/youth and queer cultures/subcultures; the move from paper to digital archives and documents; zines; and the work of activists who employ creative/artistic/cultural approaches to work for social justice.